CENTRAL KHALKHA MELODY AND SCHOOL

This style of long song singing is the long song heritage of Borjigin, Khukhuid, Hatagin, Merged, Uriankhai, Khuree, Khoroo and Tsookhor ethnic groups - a part of Khalkhas, who have resided in the territory of former Tsetsen Khan county of Khalkha - present Bayanmunkh, Bayankhutag and Galshar soums to the south of Binder soum in Khentii province; Matad soum in Dornod province and Munkhkhaan and Tuvshinshiree soums in Sukhbaatar province - namely the basins of Kherlen, Onon and Khalkha Rivers. This long song heritage already was named as “Central Khalkha melody” by the end of 19th and early 20th centuries (As identified by J.Dorjdagva). The Central Khalkha melody consisted of three main styles of Khurkh-Binder school, Khar-Del school and Khalkha river school. This school, with involvement of other long song school, was transformed into the environment of Mongolian stage art during 1921-1950s, becoming the foundation for today's 'classroom' or professional training of Mongolian long song.

This melody and school reached the highest level of singing proficiency in terms of structure, composition and singing techniques of long song of all Mongol ethnicities. For instance, the Central Khalkha school, method and technique contains many prominent singing skills and techniques such as 'dan (singular) and davkhar (double) 'shurankhai' (An octave leap to reach the highest pitch in falsetto), 'egeh' (returning) 'shurankhai', 'shavkhakh' (to reach the utmost pitch in upper octave until the airflow ceases); open and hidden breath, 'circular shift' (sentence - to sing changing the tonal shift and return to the initial tone), to connect the sentences in circular tonal shift, and other techniques such as 'khankhailgakh' (to sing in deeper pitch in larger diapason), 'duniruulakh' (to sing in slower extended mode), 'dunhiilgeh' (to sing in wider and higher range), 'oglo kharaikh' (sudden leap to other pitch), 'shirgeeh' (to end the pitch slowly), 'henhiilgeh' (to sing in broader scale), 'tsoroikh', 'davkhiulakh', 'tsumrukh', 'shigshikh', 'shigtgeh', 'khatgakh', 'khutgakh', etc.

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M.Dugarjav, a native of Munkhkhaan soum, Sukhbaatar province
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